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The first branch of the expedition departed from St. Petersburg in February 1733. Crossing Siberia, the jealous crowd of officials, workers stubborn and rebellious scientists, began a three-year nightmare for the Bering. By 1740 preparations were completed in Okhotsk, and the expedition sailed to Kamchatka, where he spent the winter. Behring moved in June 1741 with two ships, but was soon accompanying ships were separated, and the Bering went on his way only to his vessel, St. Peter. He changed his course towards the northern lands July 16. A few days later he landed at what is now Kayak Island, but physically and emotionally exhausted, and afraid to get into the trap of “opposing winds, Bering returned to Kamchatka. The team sailed in a southwesterly direction, charting approaches to the coast on its way. By the end of August Bering became too ill, and he could not even go out of his cabin. November 4th coast of one of the islands, which are now known as the Commander Islands, was seen. On the wrecked vessel and to numerous patients, Behring decided to spend the winter on the island. Although he grew weaker day by day, he continued to direct his men until his death on Dec. 8, 1741. He was buried on the island, which is now named for him. In 1742, the Forty-five of the 77 officers and sailors of St. Peter, eventually reached a safe place.
Most Northern Expedition and geographically, and from a scientific point of view has led to numerous discoveries: in particular, it is worth noting that during this expedition was open strait, now named part of the Bering, which divides Asia and America, the Siberian coast from the White Sea to Kolyma River was mapped in detail, and the American coast of the island of Prince of Wales to the Commander Islands were also inflicted on the world map.
The Tufted Puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) is a relatively abundant medium-sized pelagic seabird in the auk (Alcidae) family found throughout the North Pacific Ocean. It is one of three species of puffin that make up the Fratercula genus and is easily recognizable by its thick red bill and yellow tufts.
The Tufted Puffin was first described in 1769 by German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas. Its generic name is derived from the Latin Fratercula ‘little brother’ and the specific epithet, cirrhata ‘tufted’. Since it may be more closely related to the Rhinoceros Auklet than the other puffins it is sometimes placed in the genus Lunda.
Tufted Puffins form dense breeding colonies during the summer reproductive season from British Columbia, throughout southeastern Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, Kamchatka, the Kuril Islands and throughout the Sea of Okhotsk. While they share some habitat with Horned Puffins (F. corniculata), the range of the Tufted Puffin is generally more southern. They have been known to nest in small numbers as far south as the northern Channel Islands, off southern California. However, the last confirmed sighting at the Channel Islands occurred in 1997.
Tufted Puffins typically select islands or cliffs that are relatively inaccessible to predators, close to productive waters, and high enough that they can take to the air successfully. Ideal habitat is steep but with a relatively soft soil substrate and grass for the creation of burrows.
During the winter feeding season, they spend their time almost exclusively at sea, extending their range throughout the North Pacific and south to Japan and California.
Tufted Puffins feed almost exclusively on fish, which they catch by diving from the surface. Adults may also feed on squid or other invertebrates. Feeding areas can be located far offshore from the nesting areas. Puffins can store large quantities of small fish in their bills and carry them to their chicks.
Tufted Puffins are preyed upon by various avian raptors such as Snowy Owls, Bald Eagles and Peregrine Falcons, and mammals like the Arctic Foxes. Foxes seem to prefer the puffin over other birds, making the bird a main target. Choosing inaccessible cliffs and entirely mammal-free islands protects them from terrestrial predators while laying eggs in burrows is effective in protecting them from egg-scavengers like gulls and ravens.
Date of issue: October, 16, 2010
Designer: Vladimir Marmiloff
Catalog number: 2 (28)